Database of 1960 Maps of Mueang Districts of Thailand

Prin Jhearmaneechotechai, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok

Published in Academic Journal of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University, 2016

Translated for Archival City by Pijika Pumketkao,  École nationale supérieure architecture de Paris-Belleville

Abstract:

This article describes the creation of a cartographic database based upon the 1960 maps of 70 Mueang districts of Thailand that were recently discovered and studied. The database-creation process includes the search and compilation of the maps, the improvement of the maps’ condition, the creation of index of place names and other cartographic features on the maps which can be categorized in topographic context, types of buildings, archaeological sites and monuments and the road network. This database can be used for future study and research on Thai cities during the 1960s.

Keywords: database, City map, Cities in Thailand, 1960.

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Traces of a public policy for energy-saving in social housing at the French National Archives (1974 – 1982)

Anaïs Parmentier, Université Gustave Eiffel

Access to data : https://doi.org/10.34847/nkl.bce654z8

Abstract

The 1970s were marked by two oil crises. Rising oil prices and the threat of oil shortages forced the French government to quickly establish an energy-saving policy. This policy took different approaches over the course of the decade, depending on the sectors targeted. This data paper looks back at the archival corpus assembled and used for a master’s degree study, which sought to establish how social housing stakeholders approached and managed these energy crises, as well as how they acted alongside the public authorities to establish an energy-saving policy in the HLM sector. Focusing on the records selected at the French National Archives, this data paper explains the archival process and choices made in order to build up a corpus for a study specifically focused on social housing. Nevertheless, this corpus may also be of interest to historians working on the history of construction, or on the history of alternative energies and their use in the residential sector.

Keywords: Social Housing, HLM, Renewable energies, Oil crisis, Energy-saving policies

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On the archives of the Congregation of the Good Shepherd in Quito

Women’s Re-education Work and urban space in Ecuador (1870-1942)

Erika Bedon, FLACSO-Ecuador

Archival description on AtoM
Archival City, “EC-NSCBP. Fonds of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd – Ecuador”, ArchivalCity_RG_0002: http://atom.archivalcity.org/index.php/fondo-de-la-congregacion-de-nuestra-senora-de-la-caridad-del-buen-pastor-ecuador

This approach to the historical documents of the Congregation of the Good Shepherd in Ecuador is part of a broader work that we are developing with Eduardo Kingman and Ana María Goetschel, from the Department of Anthropology, History and Humanities of FLACSO-Ecuador. This work is aimed at showing the functioning of the Congregation of the Good Shepherd in Ecuador, during Garcianism and liberalism, as a system of disciplining and moral control, between the actions of the state and the Church.

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Recensements et cartographie de Quito et de son aire métropolitaine (1573-2022) 

Henry Godard, chercheur indépendant

RÉSUMÉ :

Cet article a pour objet la collecte des données et l’analyse de la base de données des plans historique de Quito et de celle de l’Institut national de statistique et recensements (INEC). Après avoir replacé cette collecte dans son contexte historique et son environnement scientifique (la réalisation du programme Atlas informatisé de Quito entre 1984 et 1992), nous aborderons : la base de données des plans historiques en cours de construction et qui comprend près de 200 documents ; les données issues des cinq derniers recensements (1982, 1990, 2001, 2010 et 2022) ; les cartes composées de nombreuses couches et réalisées avec le programme Illustrator ; les possibilités de réutilisation de ces données par les enseignants, chercheurs, professionnels et étudiants.

MOTS-CLÉS :

ÉQUATEUR — QUITO — MÉTHODOLOGIE — SIG — INFOGRAPHIE — PLANS HISTORIQUES — CARTOGRAPHIE

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Videos of “Living Archives for Sustainable Cities” closing conference

 

The “Living Archives for Sustainable Cities” closing conference took place on 9 and 10 November at the Université Gustave Eiffel.

Videos of the various panels and round tables are available below, as well as on the project’s Facebook page.

 

Video 1-First Day. 9 November 2023

00:12:11 – Welcoming remarks
00:18:33 – Introductory round table – Reflecting on city archives on an international scale: Archival City’s issues and methods
2:54:00 – Dispersed archives, competing memories: unveiling Quito
5:29:15 – Virtual reconstruction of archive collections: what medieval Bologna can teach us
7:30:41 – Documenting the ordinary city in transformation: reflections from Chiang Mai

 

Video 2-Morning session, 10 November 2023.

00:01:10 – Welcoming remarks

00:08:37 – Scattered archives, dislocated archives: Algiers between two shores

2:12:40 – From an archive portal to a 3D reconstruction of a disappeared neighbourhood: Jerusalem’s North African quarter

 

Video 3-Afternoon session, 10 November 2023.

00:03:20 – Administering the metropolis: thinking Greater Paris through archives
2:02:10 – Concluding panel – From fields to tools: past data for a resilient and inclusive city

 

Quito’s Urban Development and Indigenous Labor Force: The Case of the Llano Grande Commune ( First Half of the 20th Century)

Gabriela Arguello, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito

gabyarguello@hotmail.es

Data access on Nakala*: https://doi.org/10.34847/nkl.ee51wck5

*This data set contains personal data. Users wishing to view the images must make a formal request to the author.

Abstract

The indigenous communities that remained settled within the perimeter of the city of Quito, or in its hinterland, have played a crucial role in the construction and maintenance of the city in the first half of twentieth century. During the process of urban development, these organizations were absorbed and overlooked in the public sphere. They represent a significant contingent of indigenous labor that built public works and provided the conditions necessary for the urban space to exist. In the case of Llano Grande, a community located in the northeastern part of Quito, a substantial portion of its population specialized in the city’s sanitation service. Using the case study of this community in the first half of the 20th century, this article provides an insight into the primary source research on municipal sanitation workers in Quito and how the labor force was provided to the city.

Keywords: Quito, Llano Grande, indigenous communities, public works, sanitation service.

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Archival Data About the Ethiopian Orthodox Community in Jerusalem (1840-1948)

Stéphane Ancel, CNRS

Archival descriptions on AtoM
Open Jerusalem, all archival descriptions related to the Ethiopian Orthodox community: http://www.archives.openjerusalem.org/index.php/informationobject/browse?topLod=0&sort=relevance&query=Ethiopian+Orthodox+&repos=

Abstract

The presence of the Ethiopian Orthodox community in Jerusalem is attested as early as the 12th century. Since then, the community has had its ups and downs, and by the early 19th century it was in a very difficult situation, with only a few members living in the monastery of Dayr al-Sultan, located on the roof of the Chapel of St. Helena, adjacent to the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. While some of the archives concerning the Ethiopian Orthodox community in Jerusalem are still in Holy City, a very large proportion of the archival documents relating to this community can be found in Ethiopia today, as well as in Turkey, Italy, France and England. The reason for this dispersion lies in the relations that members of the community maintained with various political and diplomatic players in the city during this period.The aim of this article is to report on the information-gathering work carried out by the Open Jerusalem project about the archives of Jerusalem’s Ethiopian Orthodox community. In addition this research paper  offers an overview of the archival collections concerning this community, while explaining the reasons for their location.

Keywords: Jerusalem, Archives, Ethiopian Orthodox Community

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Closing session of the Archival City masterclass-10 October 2023

On October 10, 2023 the closing session of the Archival City masterclass took place in the presence of some twenty M1 and M2 students and several ACP laboratory professors (Corinne Maitte, Frédéric Saly Giocanti, Giuliano Milani and Vincent Lemire).

The masterclass ran from March to September 2023. Over the course of seven sessions, it brought together three M1 and M2 students and three supervisors (Loic Vadelorge, Carole Lamoureux and Annalaura Turiano) members of the Archival City research project), as well as several speakers from the different study fields covered by the Archival City research program. The aim of the masterclass was to provide an introduction to research work in modern and contemporary history. Methodology of archival description, presentation of the method for writing data and research papers alternated with the presentation of students’ dissertations.

During the closing session, the supervisors gave a brief presentation of the master class’s objectives and program. This was followed by a presentation of the students’ work. Vincent Kuntz presented his dissertation on Parisian urban disasters in the press and literary accounts from 1764 to 1780.  Anaïs Parmentier presented the archival corpus of her M2 dissertation “Economiser et maîtriser l’énergie : les HLM face aux crises énergétiques (1974- 1982)”. Finally, Wilfried Pingault presented the construction of his M2 dissertation on hydro-history based on the archives of a new conurbation (Grand Paris Sud). M1 and M2 students took part in the discussion that followed each presentation, asking questions about research methodology or specific repositories.

 

Despite the diversity of their subjects and research questions, the three students presented the constitution of their archival corpus, underlining the need to start with the history of archive producers. They highlighted the method used to select sources and the difficulties encountered, as well as the data extraction and spatialization tools used, as in the case of the maps created by Vincent Kuntz to visualise the fires in the French capital.

Vicent Lemire, director of Archival City, gave the closing address and invited students to attend the Archival City closing conference on November 9 and 10.

Paul Lesieur -A database for studying the public roads departement of the Préfecture de la Seine(19th-20th centuries)

Paul Lesieur, Université Gustave Eiffel

 

Data access on Nakala: https://doi.org/10.34847/nkl.fabf4xj6

Archival description on AtoM
Archival City, “FR-AD75/PER232-PER232ter[varia]. Administrative yearbooks for the City of Paris and the Seine Department”, ArchivalCity_RG_0016: http://atom.archivalcity.org/index.php/annuaires-administratifs-de-ville-de-paris-et-du-departement-de-la-seine

Abstract

The database presented here provides an account of the internal organisation of the Service de la Voie publique (SVP) of the Préfecture de la Seine between 1850 and 1980. It is a potentially useful tool for any researcher interested in the transformation and management of public space in the capital in the 19th and 20th century, making it easier to navigate through the catalogues of archive collections relating to roads. On the other hand, any urban worksite, street furniture and occupation of public space required the approval and supervision of the engineers from the SVP. Consequently, any researcher working on the history of Paris may come into contact with the staff of this technical service in its archives. The database is thus helpful to find out about an agent’s specific unit and his function within it.

Key-words: Paris, 19th-20th century, urban management,  technical services, public roads

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Paul Lesieur- The management of public roads in Paris by the Préfecture de la Seine (19th-20th centuries)

Paul Lesieur is PhD candidate at Gustave Eiffel University ACP laboratory. His thesis is on the management of public roads in Paris by the Préfecture de la Seine, from the mid-nineteenth century, with the appointment of Haussmann and the start of major works, to the early twentieth century and the arrival of the motor car. During this period, the challenge of ensuring good traffic flow went hand-in-hand with that of hygiene as one of the main concerns in the management of public roads, and this had a direct impact on the materiality of urban space, justifying changes to the road surface.

What is your thesis about? What are the main scientific goals?

My thesis is on the management of public roads in Paris by the Préfecture de la Seine, from the mid-nineteenth century, with the appointment of Haussmann and the start of major works, to the early twentieth century and the arrival of the motor car, but using an original approach. Rather than studying streets and avenues as a medium of daily life whose uses must be regulated, I see them as an infrastructure that is worn down by traffic and that must be constantly cared for to ensure its longevity. In this way, I adopt the point of view of the engineers of the Parisian technical services, whose number and role increased in the 19th and 20th centuries. During this period, the challenge of ensuring good traffic flow went hand-in-hand with that of hygiene as one of the main concerns in the management of public roads, and this had a direct impact on the materiality of urban space, justifying changes to the road surface

My aim is therefore to report on all the conditions necessary for the proper conservation of this infrastructure. Maintenance appears to be primarily a financial problem. However, it also requires an entire organisation to monitor the condition of the road, prevent wear and tear and repair any damage. This mobilises several hundred workers on a daily basis on the Parisian roads. Finally, maintenance requires a regular supply of materials to compensate for wear and tear, as well as reprocessing of worn materials. These exchanges make up a veritable metabolism, essential for keeping the network in good condition.

The scientific  goals of this research project are threefold. For the history of transport, it aims to show the importance of studying the development of infrastructure, which necessarily runs parallel to that of mobility, but which sometimes comes into conflict with it. It is also an original approach to the history of technology, focusing on the routine nature of maintenance rather than on major inventions and constructions. This work offers a more concrete look at how societies relate to technology. Finally, this project highlights a new way of approaching urban history, by questioning what makes up its materiality and ensures its durability. It reminds us that the quest for urban resilience is not just a preoccupation of the 21st century.

What corpus of archives are you drawing on and what methods are you using?

In the mid-nineteenth century, the development of technical services was essential to the implementation of the major Haussmann projects. They were brought together under the Works Departement, which gained in staff and resources and centralised decisions on the management of technical networks. These departments included the Public Highways Department. This department was made up of the offices of the chief engineer, and territorial sections that divided the Paris territory into different zones (Figure 1). Each of the sections operated almost independently of the others, being responsible for road maintenance and the coordination of all works affecting the public space.

Fig. 1- Map of the territorial sections of the engineer and the district of the Paris drivers, 1893

I am therefore primarily interested in the archives of the technical departments responsible for managing public roads. My corpus of sources brings together the archives of the offices of the Direction des Travaux, the Service de la Voie Publique, and the engineers of each of the sections. To understand how the department operated on a regular basis, I cross-referenced instructions from the directorate with reports drawn up by the territorial sections. The engineer’s reports provide an overview of the prefect’s requests and the technical departments’ responses, giving an idea of the latter’s decision-making powers.

I have paid particular attention to the specifications, notes and registers relating to cobblestone deposits, which allow me to quantify the volumes of materials required for the maintenance of Parisian roads. Finally, by cross-referencing my corpus with the budgets of the City of Paris, it is possible to take account of the way in which funding is voted and allocated. On this point, the deliberations of bodies such as the City Council and the Conseil National des Ponts et Chaussées show that these choices are also of interest to the State, which contributes to the financing of the maintenance of Parisian public roads.

How does your work contribute to the history of Greater Paris and to urban history in general?

The Works Department is an institution that is well known to contemporary historians. It is mentioned on numerous occasions to highlight its growing importance. However, few recent studies have focused specifically on its workings, apart from the recent work of Chiara Santini[1]. Nevertheless, the Department of Public Works played a prominent role in the government of the capital in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. At a time when the needs of the city’s inhabitants were increasingly being met by technological solutions, leading to the deployment of urban networks, both underground and above ground, the technical services were given a say in prefectoral decisions (to such an extent that Adolphe Alphand, its director, was sometimes referred to as the city’s real mayor in the early days of the Third Republic). What’s more, as most of its engineers were recruited from the civil engineering corps, they occupied a unique position between the city and the State. As the capital grew and expanded, they became recognised experts in the management of road networks in general.

By delving into the inner workings of the Préfecture de la Seine, this research firstly highlights the heterogeneity of what contemporaries call the Administration. Behind this term, lie various departments, whose relationships cannot be reduced to simple subordination. The director called on the enlightened advice of his engineers, who did not hesitate to contradict him. Although they carry out the work, they are also involved in political debates.

I would also like to emphasise the need to take maintenance conditions into account when studying urban infrastructures. This is far from being reduced to a line item in the city’s budget. Maintenance involves a large number of workers, from engineers to temporary labourers. In addition, the problem of maintenance justifies, or even imposes, a large number of changes to urban space. For example, the first criterion in choosing a road surface, which has a very strong symbolic value in Paris, is usually the lowest cost of maintenance. However, this does not necessarily mean using more resistant materials. The decision has to take into account transport costs and the availability of resources.

What is your contribution to Archival City?

Within Archival City, I’m working on the Greater Paris Directory project. This involves extracting all the data contained in administrative directories. This document, intended for citizens and administrators, presents the departments and staff that make up the Préfecture de la Seine. Paris enjoys a special status. Until 1975, the capital was administered not by an elected mayor but by a prefect appointed by the national government. His remit covered the whole of the Seine department, including Paris and its inner suburbs. The quasi-annual publication of this document therefore allows regular monitoring of the organisation of Greater Paris.

At the start of my thesis, in order to gain a better understanding of the structure of the Public Highways Department and its place within the Department of Public Works, I systematically went through the administrative directories, focusing on these two departments. This work helped me considerably to find my way around the archive catalogues. The resulting database is a tremendous help in understanding the internal correspondence of the technical departments. It has enabled me to appreciate the value of this source for researchers interested in the administration of metropolitan areas.

Could you tell us about the data paper you are currently finalising?

The database I  have created for my initial research (Figure 2) will soon be freely accessible. The data paper, which describes it,  sets out how the directory is presented, the data that has been extracted and different ways of putting it to good use. This is only a small part of what the directory contains, but the data may already be of interest to any researcher working on the development or use of public space. In fact, the remit of public highway engineers is not limited to maintaining the road network. They are involved in all aspects of urban space.

Fig. 2- Screenshot of the database for the year 1885

The orange lines represent departments and the green lines agents. The top left-hand corner shows the source of the information and the year.

Above all, as previously stated, Archival City’s Greater Paris sub-project will shortly be putting the data needed to reconstruct the whole of the Préfecture de la Seine in open access. In these circumstances, the data paper I am currently writing acts as an introduction. It shows how the future database can be applied to a specific subject, the administration of public roads.

 

[1] Chiara Santini, Adolphe Alphand et la construction du paysage de Paris, Paris, Hermann, 2020.

The Administrative Directories of the Préfecture de la Seine and the City of Paris: encoding and visualisation tool

Interview with Carole Lamoureux, Cassandre Maubert and Jeanne Fras

 

The Archival City programme team has undertaken the scanning and the encoding of a collection of administrative directories from the Préfecture de la Seine and the City of Paris spanning the period from 1883 to 1970. These directories list the “personnel and responsibilities of the departments of the Seine and the City of Paris” (1885-1911), later renamed “organisation and responsibilities of the departments” (1920-1966) and “administrative directory” (from 1970). This work makes it possible to navigate quickly and reliably through 38 directories. We spoke with Carole Lamoureux, Cassandre Maubert and Jeanne Fras, integral contributors to the transcription and encoding of these directories, about their methodologies and the outcomes they achieved.

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Tamara Estupiñán Viteri -A Cultural and Economic History of Quito through Notarial Protocol books (16th-19th Century)

Tamara Estupiñán Viteri is a professional historian with a degree in History from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. She was the first woman graduate in the country in a career that only began in the 1980s. She also holds a master’s degree in history, with a specialisation in Andean history, from the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences of Ecuador (FLACSO). For more than 20 years, she was head of the Historical Research Department, covering cultural and economic history, at the Museum and Cultural Programmes of the Central Bank of Ecuador. In addition to this expertise, she has more than 40 years of research experience in archives, libraries and in the field, both in Ecuador and abroad. Her scientific work has been recognised with major awards and prestigious national and international scholarships. In 2012, she was incorporated as a corresponding member of the National Academy of History of Ecuador and currently works as a research associate with Archival City-Quito in collaboration with the University of San Francisco de Quito.

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Quito 1532: 3D modeling of Quito in the Inca era

Carlos Espinosa, USFQ

Data Access on Nakala: http://doi.org/10.34847/nkl.f6323el0

 

Abstract

Archival City Quito-USFQ encompasses three pillars: the digitalization of urban archives, GIS mapping of the uses of urban space and Unity based 3D modelling of historical cityscapes.  All three of these features place the project squarely in the field of the digital humanities, which lies at the intersection of digital technologies and the humanities, including history (Gardiner and Musto, 2015).  This data paper focuses on the third pillar, the 3 D construction of Quito in the Inca era, entitled Quito 1532. Technologically, the 3 D model combines NASA relief maps, Google Earth, aerial drone-based photography, the Unity 3D gaming engine, Maya graphics and Render-Blender architectural apps. The panoramic environment generated is interactive, permitting an exploratory tour of Quito on the eve of the Spanish conquest.

Keywords: Ecuador, Quito, Inca era,  archives, archeology, 3D modelling

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The National Archive of Communes and the issue of urban development in the city of Quito (1937-1973)

Gabriela Arguello, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito gabyarguello@hotmail.es

 

Data access on Nakala*: http://doi.org/10.34847/nkl.cb00f4k3

*This data set contains personal data. Users wishing to view the images must make a formal request to the author.

Abstract:

The Law on Commune Organization and Regime was passed in Ecuador in 1937. This Law gave rise to the legal incorporation of civil society organizations, regularly linked to indigenous and peasant communities, under the label of comunas (communes). This legal framework fostered a series of administrative procedures between the communes and the State, which resulted in the creation of documents and the formation of the National Archive of Communes. These organizations and their documentary collection were under the administration of the Ministry of Social Security and Labor between 1937 and 1973, the period in which this research is framed. Thereafter, responsibility for this subject fell to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, which is where the archive is currently held. This article offers an approach to this repository in order to trace a thread of its history and to analyze its documents and the role that the indigenous communes had in the context of the urban development of the city of Quito.

Keywords : Ecuador, Quito, Archives, Communes, Urban development

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